1845 Original Rules of Baseball

Alexander Cartwright created the first rules of baseball on September 23, 1845 for the Knickerbockers ball club. Several of these rules have survived the test of time and are currently a part of modern day baseball rules.

1. Members must strictly observe the time agreed upon for exercise and be punctual in their attendance.

2. When assembled for practice, The President, or Vice President in his absence, shall appoint an umpire, who shall keep the game in a book provided for that purpose, and note all violations of the By-Laws and Rules during the time of exercise.

3. The presiding officer shall designate two members as captains, who shall retire and make the match to be played, observing at the same time the players put opposite each other should be as nearly equal as possible; the choice of the two sides to be then tossed for, and the first in hand to be decided in a like manner.

4. The bases shall be from "home" to second base, 42 paces; from first base to third base, 42 paces, equidistant.

5. No stump match shall be played on a regular day of exercise.

6. If there should not be a sufficient number of members of the club present at the time agreed upon to commence exercise, gentlemen not members may be chosen in to make up the match, which shall not be broken up to take in members that may afterwards appear; but in all cases, members shall have the preference, when present at the making of the match.

7. If members appear after the game is commenced they may be chosen in if mutually agreed upon.

8. The game to consist of 21 counts, or aces; but at the conclusion of an equal number of hands must be played.

9. The ball must be pitched, and not thrown, for the bat.

10. A ball knocked out of the field, or outside the range of first or third base, is foul.

11. Three balls being struck at and missed and the last one caught is a hand out; if not caught is considered fair, and a striker is bound to run.

12. A ball being struck or tipped and caught either flying or on the first bound is a hand out.

13. A player running the base shall be out, if the ball is in the hands of an adversary on the base, or the runner is touched with it before he makes his base; it being understood, however, that in no instance is a ball to be thrown at him.

14. A player running who shall prevent an adversary from catching or getting the ball before making his base is a hand out.

15. Three hands out, all out.

16. Players must take their strike in a regular turn.

17. All disputes and differences relative to the game, to be determined by the Umpire, from which there is no appeal.

18. No ace or base can be made on a foul strike.

19. A runner cannot be put out in making one base, when a balk is made by the pitcher.

20. But one base allowed when a ball bounds out of the field when struck.