Explanation

Name Explanation
Emendation An intentional change to a previously proposed name, e.g., Lindinger proposed the emendation Hemiberlesea for the armored scale Hemiberlesia indicating that it was originally improperly formed.
Allotype A specimen designated from the type series that is the opposite sex of the holotype.
Available name A name that is correctly proposed according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. An available name is not necessarily the valid name.
Incertae sedis A name of uncertain identity.
Junior homonym If there are only two homonyms, the junior homonym is the most recently described homonym; if there are more than two homonyms, the junior homonyms are all but the oldest described homonym which is the senior homonym, e.g., Eriococcus mancus Ferris, 1955 is the junior homonym and Eriococcus mancus (Maskell, 1897) is the senior homonym.
Category Any rank within the classification hierarchy, e.g., family, subfamily, subspecies.
Neotype A specimen chosen as the standard bearer of a species or subspecies name for which none of the original type specimens exist.
Paralectotype All of the specimens in the syntype series of a species or subspecies other than the lectotype.
Change of rank When a name is moved from one level of the classification system to another, e.g., when De Lotto (1955) moved Ceroplastes destructor brevicauda from the subspecies to the species rank C. brevicauda this was a change of rank.
Change of rank When a name is moved from one level of the classification system to another, e.g., when De Lotto (1955) moved Ceroplastes destructor brevicauda from the subspecies to the species rank C. brevicauda this was a change of rank.
Taxon One or more organisms that belong to the same taxonomic unit.
Unavailable name A name that is incorrectly proposed according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
Valid name The correct name of an organism, e.g., if Apiomorpha nux Fuller, 1896 and A. pharetrata Scharder, 1863 apply to the same species (and therefore are synonyms), then by the law of priority (the oldest name prevails) A. pharetrata Scharder, 1863 is the valid name.
Classification A system of nested hierarchical categories used to efficiently store information about the diversity of life.
Classify To place a taxon in a classification system.
Cotypes A term no longer recognized in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; synonymous with syntypes.
Holotype A specimen that serves as the standard bearer of a species or subspecies name.
Homonym One of two or more scientific names that are identical but pertain to different organisms, e.g., Eriococcus mancus Ferris, 1955 and Eriococcus mancus (Maskell, 1897); Onceropyga Ferris, 1955 and Onceropyga Turner, 1904.
Junior synonym If there are only two synonyms, the most recently described one is the junior synonym; if there are more than two synonyms, the junior synonyms are all but the oldest described one which is the senior synonym, e.g., Apiomorpha nux Fuller, 1896 is the junior synonym and A. pharetrata Scharder, 1863 is the senior synonym.
Justified emendation An emendation that is correct according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, e.g., the name susani is proposed as a patronym for a woman named Susan; according to the Code the name must be changed to susanae and is a justified emendation.
Lectotype A specimen chosen as the standard bearer of a species or subspecies and selected from the syntype series.
Misidentification A citation of a name in the literature that used the incorrect name because the specimens were improperly determined.
Misspelling A citation of a name in the literature that is incorrectly spelled.
New combination When a species is transferred to a different genus for the first time.
Nomen nudum A name that does not fulfill the criteria set by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature as a legally described scientific name and therefore cannot be used unless it is subsequently proposed correctly.
Paratype All of the specimens in the type series of a species or subspecies other than the holotype.
Replacement name A name that is assigned to replace a name that is a junior homonym, e.g., Onceropyga Turner, 1904 is the valid name and Onceropyga Ferris, 1955 is the junior homonym and must be replaced; Hoy (1963) proposed the replacement name Oregmopyga.
Senior homonym The oldest described homonym, e.g., Onceropyga Turner, 1904 is the senior homonym and Onceropyga Ferris, 1955 is the junior homonym.
Senior synonym The oldest synonym, e.g., Apiomorpha pharetrata Scharder, 1863 is the senior synonym and A. nux Fuller, 1896 is the junior synonym.
Synonym One of two or more scientific names that are spelled differently but refer to the same organism, e.g., Apiomorpha nux Fuller, 1896 and A. pharetrata Scharder, 1863 are names used for the same species of eriococcid and are synonyms.
Synonymy A section of a systematic presentation about an organism that lists all of the names that have been used for the organism including synonyms, new combinations, misidentifications, etc. In some cases this section may include only true synonyms.
Syntypes The series of specimens used to describe a species or subspecies when the author did not include a holotype.
Systematics The field of science dealing with the diversity of life and the relationships of life's component organisms.
Taxonomy The field of science that classifies life.
Topotype One or more specimens collected at the same location as the type series regardless of whether they are part of the type series.
Type A term used to describe the nomenclatural importance of various kinds of specimens.
Type locality The geographic location where the primary type was collected.
Type species A species that has been selected as the standard bearer of a genus or subgenus.
Type genus A genus that has been selected as the standard bearer of a tribe, family, or superfamily and provides the stem of the family-group name.
Unjustified emendation An emendation that is incorrect according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, e.g., the generic name Hemiberlesea Lindinger is an incorrect change of Hemiberlesia Cockerell according to the Code and is an unjustified emendation.

based

1. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/scalenet/glossary.htm - Public domain glossary of Terms Pertaining to Zoological Nomenclature.