A noun is a naming word. They are labels for things you see, think, hear or touch. People, animals, places and times can all be labelled with nouns. A name is a word or phrase that you give to something, especially a person or a pet.
A common noun is a type of word that labels things that there are many of. Common nouns start with a small letter unless they are at the start of a sentence. A "dog" is a common noun.
A proper noun is a word that labels something there is only one of. Your name is an example of a proper noun. Proper nouns start with a capital letter.
Collective nouns are labels for groups of different things. An example of a collective noun is a "class" of children.
Concrete nouns are labels for things that you can touch or see.
Abstract nouns are labels for things you can think about but you'll never actually be able to touch or see. These can be things like ideas, feelings of happiness or sadness or values of honesty and kindness.
man - woman - child